Review: The Reformation: A History

THE SIEGE OF MAGDEBURG

A few months ago, I began to grow bored with the Alt-Right. I was sick of the internet drama. I was sick of following and writing about the news cycle. I was sick of hearing, day in and day out, about whatever the Trump administration was doing. From my perspective, nothing was changing in American politics and I was just wasting my time paying so much attention to it.

It was around this time that I decided to change my focus. I embarked on this project to study the moral and cultural decline of the West across history. I became more interested in history, culture, religion and philosophy than politics. I bought a ton of new books and quickly became so absorbed in my research that I all but stopping writing on this website. It is more a challenge to write regularly about these topics than whatever happens to be in the news cycle on any given day.

As I have explained in previous posts, I wanted to start in Western Europe in the Early Modern Era and explore cultural trends down to the present day. At the beginning of this period, Europe was still relatively isolated from the rest of the world. Intellectually, educated Europeans were still living in Aristotle, Ptolemy and Galen’s universe. The Catholic Church dominated Western culture. Western Christendom shared an elite language, Latin, and universities which were the basis of a common international culture.

Europe was not “liberal” in any sense of the word at the start of the Early Modern Era. The Ancien Régime in France wasn’t “liberal” all the way down to the French Revolution in 1789. The same was true of most of the other powers in Europe – Spain and Portugal, the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, although some enlightened monarchs like Joseph II, Frederick the Great and Peter the Great were modernizing and adopting some liberal reforms. Clearly, the origins of liberalism are to be found in Europe in the Early Modern Era between 1450 and 1789.

You may have noticed that I didn’t include Britain and the Netherlands on this list. That’s because what we would recognize as “liberalism” has its origins in these two countries in the years around 1700. To what extent was the Protestant Reformation to blame for the rise of liberalism?

It was with this question at the forefront of my mind that I took Diarmaid MacCulloch’s The Reformation: A History off my bookshelf and began reading it. I’ve had this 792 page book since it first came out in 2003. I never had the time or the interest to read the whole thing until last month.

This is a sweeping account of church history from around 1450 to 1700 that spans the Schmalkaldic War, French Wars of Religion, the English Civil War, the Thirty Years’ War and the Dutch War of Independence to cite only the most brutal conflicts. If you have ever wondered about the origins of the religious landscape of Europe and North America, you should definitely check out this book.

The Protestants can be broken down into roughly four camps – the Lutherans, the Reformed, the Anglicans and the Radicals. Each branch of Protestantism has a different theology and history. All four were opposed by Counter-Reformation Catholicism throughout this period.

The Lutherans are the followers of Martin Luther. This branch of Protestantism became ascendant in northern Germany in what was then the Holy Roman Empire and Scandinavia. Lutheranism was almost exclusively confined to the German-speaking world. The historical arc of Lutheranism from Martin Luther’s nailing his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg in 1517 down to 1700 was institutionalization and confessionalization. In the Holy Roman Empire, the Cuius regio, eius religio principle (Whose realm, his religion) emerged from the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. Lutheranism quickly became the established state church in northern Germany and Scandinavia. There was ONE religion in the Lutheran world and the overall story is religious homogeneity, a close relationship between church and state and a long term trend toward a very refined and robust theology.

The Reformed grew out of the other major pole of the Reformation in Switzerland. The earliest leaders here were Huldrych Zwingli and Heinrich Bullinger in Zürich and Johannes Oecolampadius in Basel. Fatefully, the Lutherans and the Reformed diverged at the Marburg Colloquy over the Eucharist. Zwingli was killed in battle outside of Zürich and Bullinger emerged as his successor. John Calvin later became the dominant theologian in the Reformed world. Calvin and Bullinger resolved their theological differences and Reformed Protestantism once seemed poised to become dominant in Europe.

Unlike the Lutherans, Reformed Protestantism was a much more international movement and advanced primarily outside of the German-speaking world. The Reformed were once dominant in a band of territories stretching from Scotland to the Netherlands to parts of France to Switzerland to Hungary, Poland and Transylvania. The overall story here is rapid expansion, religious heterogeneity and intense conflict in a religious borderland between Catholicism and Lutheranism. Reformed Protestantism was rolled back in large parts of Europe – Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Transylvania, England and France – after the disasters of the Thirty Years’ War, English Civil War and the reign of Louis XIV.

Anglicanism was the product of England’s unique half-hearted Reformation following Henry VIII’s determination to produce a male heir to carry on the Tudor family line. The overall story is intense conflict first with Catholics under Bloody Mary and later with Reformed Protestants, the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England because they weren’t satisfied with Queen Elizabeth I’s religious settlement. Queen Elizabeth I had loved religious music, art and ceremony which the Calvinist Puritans deplored as popish remnants of Catholicism. The conflict between Anglicanism and Puritanism culminated in the English Civil War after King Charles I attempted to impose bishops and an Anglican prayer book on Presbyterian Scotland. The Scots and Irish rebelled and the conflict spilled over into England where the Puritans were powerful in Parliament. King Charles I was beheaded in the English Civil War, but Oliver Cromwell’s regime was short lived. The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy led to the disintegration of the Puritan movement in England and the triumph of High Church Anglicanism.

This proved to be a false dawn for Anglicanism because King Charles II secretly signed an agreement with King Louis XIV to re-Catholicize Britain. The reign of his openly Catholic brother, James II who was his successor, led to a succession crisis, the end of the Stuart dynasty and the Glorious Revolution which established Stadtholder William of Orange of the Netherlands as King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland. The Glorious Revolution established religious tolerance of Protestant Dissenters in Britain. The long term story of Anglicanism is the loss of influence and privilege due to the growth of Dissenters in the 18th and 19th centuries and the eventual triumph of evangelical Christianity in Britain.

If anyone heralded the arrival of liberalism in Europe, it was the Radical Protestants. These antinomian sects – Radical Protestants who believed that salvation by faith and grace entailed their exemption from social norms and moral law on earth – were the scourge of the Reformation. The most famous incident was the establishment of the “New Jerusalem” by radical Anabaptists in Münster. The overall story here though is that the Radicals alienated everyone and were violently repressed virtually everywhere in Europe with the exception of Moravia. Martin Luther and John Calvin hated the Anabaptists who they considered fanatics. Lutherans and Calvinists cooperated with Catholics to persecute the Anabaptists. It was this persecution that transformed the Anabaptists into quietists. Ironically, the world rejecting descendants of these radical groups – the Hutterites, the Mennonites and the Amish – are now widely regarded as among the most conservative and traditionalist of all European religious groups!

The Catholic Church survived the Reformation and remained absolutely dominant in Iberia and Italy. The Reformation had little appeal in Southern Europe. Italy, of course, produced all the popes from the time of the Reformation down to John Paul II. The Pope was considered little more than an Italian prince for centuries. In Iberia, the militant Catholicism that powered the Reconquista continued to crush multiculturalism by forcing Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism. When that wasn’t good enough, Jews and Muslims were expelled from Spain and Portugal. Spain was the dominant European power in the 16th century and Protestantism never established a foothold there. The overall story of Catholicism during the Reformation was the rapid loss of northern Europe which was followed by the gradual reestablishment of Catholic dominance in central Europe. By the end of the Reformation in 1700, Protestantism had been rolled back by Louis XIV and the Habsburgs in most of Europe.

How does liberalism emerge out of this world? It was a byproduct of religious pluralism, conflict and international commerce. Spain and Portugal were religiously homogeneous. The Iberian powers strove to impose religious uniformity on their empires. They wiped out Judaism and Islam and New World paganism. Italy was comfortably and confidently Catholic. Northern Europe was a bastion of homogeneous Lutheranism. The Orthodox world was dominated by Islam and Russia was highly illiterate and committed to serfdom. Germany was a wreck after the Thirty Years’ War. Ireland was stridently and defiantly Catholic. Scotland was a bastion of homogeneous Presbyterianism. France expelled the Huguenots after Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. Habsburg Austria imposed Counter-Reformation Catholicism on Bohemia, Hungary and Transylvania.

Liberalism arose in the Dutch Republic and England in the 17th century. The great enemy of England and the Netherlands was absolutist Counter-Reformation Catholicism embodied first in the Spain of Philip II and later in the France of Louis XIV. The Dutch War of Independence was a long, drawn out fight for freedom and independence from Spain. In England, English national identity came to be linked with Protestantism, which was associated with freedom as opposed to the “Black Legend” of tyrannical Spain. Both the Netherlands and England though faced an internal challenge within Protestantism from the rise of Arminianism. Whereas Sweden was confidently Lutheran or Scotland was confidently Presbyterian, England and the Netherlands were much more diverse.

England and the Netherlands were also competing to build global commercial empires which were different from the Spanish and Portuguese empires. These two countries were at the cutting edge of European capitalism. In the Netherlands and England, large amounts of arable land was being drained and reclaimed from the sea or from swamps and bogs. Agriculture was improving. Sanitation was improving. Commodities were starting to flood back into England and the Netherlands from their new overseas colonies – Virginia, New England, the British West Indies, the Dutch East Indies, etc.

In the Netherlands, the long war for independence from Spain led to commercial prosperity. The Dutch Reformed Church became the established church, but it never dominated the Netherlands the way the Kirk did in Scotland. Basically, the Dutch Reformed Church became an established church that catered to a minority of the population. The Dutch Republic was dominated by a merchant oligarchy that had done away with monarchy and limited the power of the Dutch Reformed Church. Religious tolerance was established in major cities in the Netherlands which attracted Jews, free thinkers and other heretics like the Socinians. Religious was getting in the way of commerce.

In England, the English Civil War led to religious turmoil and the rise of Radical groups like the Diggers, Levellers and Ranters. The “Society of Friends,” which is better known as the Quakers, emerged in this period. In order to hasten the Apocalypse, Oliver Cromwell allowed the Jews to return to England. He also tolerated Protestant Dissenters. After the Restoration, the attempt to reestablish Anglican hegemony was undermined by Charles II and James II who attempted to steer Britain back into Catholicism. The result was the Glorious Revolution which united Britain and the Netherlands under William III. Britain under William III effectively adopted the Dutch model of capitalism and religious tolerance and turned away from the French model favored by Charles II and James II.

In the midst of the waning of the Reformation in the Thirty Years’ War, the Scientific Revolution was quietly going on in the background. Francis Bacon was pioneering modern empirical science. Galileo was defending the Copernican theory of heliocentrism and developing mechanics. A bunch of different intellectual currents – Hermeticism, interest in the Jewish Caballa, and the revival of interest in Ancient materialism (Democritus, Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrho, Epicurus) – were converging to produce a new cosmology which overturned the authority of the ancients. It produced a radical new skepticism and materialism which was on display in the philosophy of Descartes, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

The publication of Issac Newton’s Principia in 1687, the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government in 1689 brings to a close the Reformation. This was the beginning of the Age of Reason and the rise of liberalism. London and Amsterdam had grown into huge cities and were at the forefront of the new cosmopolitanism. Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 illustrates how bitterly most of Europe was still divided by religion, but France was now on the doorstep of the Enlightenment and from this point forward the appeal to Reason (as it would be spelled) would begin to undermine and supplant the central place of Christianity in the European social order.

If we were to return to the year 1700 and look at the state of Christianity in Europe, we would find a world which had settled into what was perceived at the time to be a rigid, dogmatic orthodoxy. In the Protestant world, the rise of evangelical Christianity after 1700 was about bring about a shift toward feeling and emotionalism and individual piety. Much of the Protestant world was in despair at the success of the Counter-Reformation in Central Europe. In the Catholic world, there was a spirit of triumphalism. Neither side anticipated that the real challenge to Christianity was going to emerge from science which was overthrowing the old Augustinian view that human nature was corrupted by Original Sin.

About Hunter Wallace 9297 Articles
Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Occidental Dissent

34 Comments

  1. Unfortunately, this ignores the influence of the Orthodox Christians prior to 1054. It also ignores the involvement of the Latin Church in the Muslim “capture “of the Orthodox Church by the Turk. The Latin Church gave full imprimatur to capture the Orthodox Church to the Turk.

    Without that, the Orthodox Church would have prevented the heresy of the so-called Reformation, itself a heresy.

    Cauvin was s French heretic, period.

    • Orthodoxy is its own separate world.

      It simply doesn’t have the same history as Western Christianity. Most of the Orthodox world fell under the rule of the Ottomans. The great exception was Russia which itself had to shake off the Mongols. The discovery of the Americas, the rise of the Atlantic Empires, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, which all transformed Latin Christendom, bypassed Orthodoxy. Liberalism didn’t emerge out of the Orthodox world.

      Generally speaking, Orthodoxy lagged far behind the West in commerce, in education, in urbanization and in literacy. Serfdom wasn’t abolished in Russia until the late 19th century. I don’t believe that Orthodoxy is special or immune to the trends that corrupted the West. It just was just underdeveloped relative to the West. When modernization finally came to the Orthodox world, it came in the form of communism and even today it still hasn’t recovered from the Bolsheviks.

      • The Orthodox were, and are considered Protestants, by most Protestant churches. You don’t seem to be aware of that?

        I like the older history’s of the Reformation that give the details of hundreds of years of Roman Catholic abuse. Luther just didn’t wake up one morning and decide to start the Reformation. LOL.

      • Orthodoxy is the fastest growing faith in the US when you consider conversions from the protestant apostasy. Almost 50% of my parish, consisting of over 600 families, are converts from the usual suspects.

        • “Orthodoxy is the fastest growing faith in the US when you consider conversions from the protestant apostasy.”

          The big problem with that, Pat, is that you are doing nothing different than every other protestant, in seeking to ‘reinvent’ Christianity, by trying new forms and fads…. IF you are ‘converting’ to EASTERN, BYZANTINE Pseudo-doxy. Hear me out…

          The West has its own, indigenous, valid rites, that were given approval back in the day, by the first (and last) White Patriarch/Saint the USA has ever known – St. TIkhon Belavin.

          Yes, I am speaking of the Western Rite.

          What most of the Byzantine Bigots (and they are as racist as they come) don’t seem to understand, is that (just in the same vein as ‘jewish’ Christian, or ‘biblical worship prots’ who start wearing yarmulkes, tallith, and begin observing the Jewish feasts and fasts, and yet call themselves ‘NT Xtians,’) to partake of the byzantine forms and fads, is a form of PHYLETISM – whether you realize it or not!

          A recent article clearly showed that the Byzantines are NO FRIENDS to the Alt-Right, to White America, or the West. Which is just as telling as the fact that a former GOA Patriarch (Iakovos of sorry memory) marched with Marchin’ Lootin’ King back in the day, and thought himself righteous for doing so!

          “For example, earlier this year, a group of Orthodox clergy in the US issued a statement in which they said, “Most emphatically there is not a ‘Caucasian race’ or a ‘Negro race’ or an ‘Asiatic race.’ There are nationalities, linguistic groups, cultural associations, and so forth, but these have only an accidental relationship to phenotype.” In other words, they acknowledge that there are physical differences yet also claim “any biological differences between so-called ‘races’ are superficial at best” and classification based thereupon “is a largely artificial construct.” This Orthodox statement was subsequently defended by Fr. Cassian Sibley, a Russian Orthodox priest in Texas, who wrote that race “does not exist and is a merely a social construct,” that there is “no such thing as… ‘Jewish blood,'” and that there “is nothing ‘Marxist’ (whether cultural or otherwise) about acknowledging any of this.” There is a rather obvious problem with this, however: namely, it is politically correct but entirely untrue.” – https://ordoevangelistarum.com/race-racism-and-faith/

          How the HELL is this “Orthodoxy” or the ‘faith once given to the saints”?????

          It’s not. It’s a Greco/Byzantine SOCIAL CLUB, with all the trappings of Constantinople, and just as fetid as the modern apostate Roman Communion, by and large.

          Fr. Seraphim Rose said, “In the end, ALL the [organized] Churches will serve Antichrist.”

          Unless you are with those who are you own ethnos, worshipping in a rite that your people created, and nurtured over centuries, and are self-consciously racially xenophobic in doing so, you might as well go back to your UMC, Charismatic congregations- because your spurious denomination ain’t gonna save you.

          I mean, if I were in Russia, I’d STILL want an Ethnically pure, Western Rite church with a priest of my own Celtic ethnicity, just like the older ‘ethnic’ churches used to be, whether there were lutheran, roman, or orthodox.

          It’s the only safeguard against the multicultural antichrist.

          • Fr John This race social construct has nothing whatsoever to do with Greco/Byzantine. This is cultural Marxism. Originating from The Frankfurt School of Social Research. Hitler kicked them out of Germany in 1933 and they unfortunately came to America, Marx by the way is rabbi marx. Needless to say this all jewish nonsense and if I remember right this school came to Columbia and then to UC Berkeley. There was also a New School of Social Research in New York or should I say jew York City. Now that these kikes have completely taken over academia they are now teaching this at the college level. They are also teaching whiteness studies. I don’t know if it has reached the high school level yet or not but rest assured it soon will be.

    • The price that Constantinople would have had to pay Rome for another crusade against the Turkroach was to become Roman Catholic. It would not do this. Unfortunately there were floated ideas for Crusades later on to free Constantinople from the Turks, but they never happened.

      • Wasn’t the Crimean War fought by the Russians with the ultimate aim of liberating Constantinople?

        • The last Czar was promised Constantinople, for participating in WWI. Then after he abdicated the Russian liberals were promised Constantinople. Lenin broke the deal.

  2. Hunter, the strange thing about America at this time is that New England was largely Calvinist and Conservative, it was the Colony of Pennsylvania Delaware and West and East Jersey that began this bizarre experiment with Pluralism. The Quakers idea that all men should have the right to seek the light of God in their own way was a cancer. This cancer, combined with cancerous Freemasonry gave the Jews perfect entree into the Colonies. At the same time, Deism and even early Atheism begins springing up on the continent and Harvard of course begins to later under John Leverett shape itself as a worldly University away from the strict Puritan dogma. Yale, founded in 1701 became the destination for conservatives.

    By the time of the American Revolution, Unitarianism, which is similar to Quakerism in the sense that they believe all men are equal and can seek God’s light, took over the wealthy of Boston. Soon this cancer ended up taking over almost all of the large Congregationalist Churches in New England, but in the rural areas. After 1800, this cancer continued to grow, influenced in a large way by French Jacobin refugees, who sought refuge here after Napoleon began killing them.

    By 1861 you have this fanatical New England Bunch, driven with a Calvinist fervor to make over the nation around the ideas of Universal Justice which was a Unitarian Concept. They were in the minority of course, but they were intelligent and wealthy enough to cause major problems and eventually they literally turned the keys to the car over to Schlomo.

    As for the Reformation, the good that came out of it was the King James Bible. Everything else all the cults of personality and the Protestant cults were evil. Personal opinion

    • The KJV is a fine example of Jacobean literature, but I’m afraid it is NOT the “revealed word of God”.

      • LOL- It’s still better than a LOT of the so-called ‘modern’ translations out there!

        Start by reading ‘The Revision Revised’ by Dean Burgon, for starters. Clearly Westcott and Hort (were they to have been born and lived in the ‘modern era’) would be Hillary Dems today, and ‘open’ to all of the egregious heresies that are flaunted as ‘moves of the H.S.’

        http://deanburgonsociety.org/DeanBurgon/dbs2771.htm

    • The KJV was a slap in the face to English Protestants who appealed to the King for more religious tolerance among an Anglican society. He gave them a Bible named after himself. It was supposed to be received as a slap in the face, though he hired a lot of scholars to create the work and ultimately they did produce a good version-it was not supposed to be received amicably.

  3. Great article! Religion is crucial for the West survival, high IQ people tend to like religious issues.

    Some numbers regarding negative views about Gypsies, Muslims and Jews in some European countries in %.
    “Protestants”-
    UK – Gypsies (45), Muslims (28), Jews (7).
    Netherlands – Gypsies (37), Muslims (35), Jews (4).

    Roman Catholics-
    Poland – Gypsies (47), Muslims (66), Jews (24).
    Hungary – Gypsies (64), Muslims (72), Jews (32).
    Italy – Gypsies (82), Muslims (70), Jews (25).

  4. Bradifer:

    I suppose us all shall have to settle for the latest “Hunter Wallace” commentary here on “The New ODES” — Occidental Dissent Embalming Society. Ten years of wanting to be a “leader” of the bowel Movement and now you want to piss away what little made is relevant apropos of sumthang in the bowel Movement?

    You have been hiding in the 16-17th Century ever since March & the Fall of the Alt-Kike/Right & leaving the bowel Movement to the Summer Rally-a-Month bowel-Movement ZOGbots like jewff Poop-Scoop & Silly Roper protesting the faggots & niggers with a dozen-or-less ZOGtards

    If you want to explain real theological destruction amongst the ZOGling whigger ass-clown ZOG-Herd, perhaps you can ask ZOGbot Silly Roper why as a Darwinian-Seedline Confidential Informant why what with his third or fourth See-Eye Dentist girlfriend he “thinks” it was Evolution (as opposed to YHWH) which created Adamic Man from nigger neanderthals and why, when him and Rick Spring were stealing Aryan Nations membership applications from off’n Pastor Butler’s desk and selling the names to Mark Potok — Baal Finck’s third cousin — & Daryl Lemont Jenkins that he got indulgences to enjoy bacon.

    Now while I think Jean Cohen-Calvin was a jew who dispensationaled away obedience to YHWH’s Law in favor of “pre-destination” I don’t blame either Cohen-Calvin or Martin Luther for the dygenics of the bowel Movement or for today’s ZOGling whigger ass-clowns being ZOGling whigger ass-clowns. You have informed Dr. Michael Hill that he has as an open member a Jersey City jew pig that spent over a dozen years in administrative segregation for murdering a Puerto-Rican sneak thief in the Jersey City Jail pretending to be a See-Eye Dentist haven’t you?

    You really need to be blowing new life into The New ODES like a love doll & stop hiding like a traumatized monk over on Gab living in the past which isn’t really the past as William Faulkner claimed as being relevant to the South.

    Hail Victory !!!

    Pastor Martin Luther Dzerzhinsky Lindstedt
    Church of Jesus Christ Christian / Aryan Nations of Missouri

    • I’ll explain something to you, sir, and that is stop with the silly un or under-educated blather. Post as an adult if you wish to be taken seriously.

      Otherwise, you’ll be seen as a 14 year old.

      • Let me explain something to some stupid faggot or mamzer whose opinion I’m much overly cooncerned about.

        The proper way for your kind to learn something is for me to take a branding iron and apply some of my choice “blather” to most of your unwashed and unlearned hide. Then take a test of your ability to learn by giving you a chance to profess understanding or in the obverse to apply some new brandings. If you wish I could reserve your buttocks cheeks for some SS runes so you ca

        Then you could take a new path to learning as an “Abednego” – level eunuch, cf. Daniel Chapter 1.

        This may cum as a big surprise to you but Brad decided to approve my post on his blog which he has been neglecting. Brad doesn’t need a little cut dog to take up for him.

        There is a reason why you Southron-Fried shitheads have been tame little ZOGlings since 1865 and it sure isn’t because yuu are smart or tough.

        • Obergruppenführer Lindstedt and Friar John are the kind of Christians I actually like! Unfortunately they are the exception, not the rule.

      • Pat Hines, Lindstedt will never be seen as a 14 year old. They have too much common sense!

  5. Enjoying the book reviews Hunter. I will say that I am amazed at the level of strife that essays on history and theology can bring out in everyone here.

  6. The Thirty Years War resulted in Germany losing a large swath of its original Germanic / Teutonic population, a loss from which Germany never fully recovered.

  7. The idea that human nature has been overthrown by Original Sin is Biblical and written about extensively by the ante Nicene Fathers of the Church. St Augustine, of course, recognizes this. Science has never seriously challenged this belief and in modern times has demonstrated it and will continue to demonstrate it. Somehow it always turns out that no matter how advanced the technology, no matter what its promises for good and the betterment of the human race – it is always turned against us. Things that make you go uhmmm.

    What did challenge Christianity were the liberal mythologies like – the Noble Savage, Evolution, Egalitarianism etc. I think we all know how those turned out.

  8. Some of the early humanists could be identified as converso-Jews, who had infiltrated the Church, many of the humanists took to dropping their own given and family names in favor of Greek or Roman names, and therefore their true identity as either German Christian, or Jew, could not be readily attained.

    In his treatise On the Jews and Their Lies, written in 1543, Martin Luther was already describing the Jewish boasts that they were in control of Germany through their practice of usury even at that time.

    Once the Jews came to power, they had begun to be criticized by patriotic Europeans everywhere, and they have persecuted or silenced many of those critics. Their control of the press, however, has been the primary means by which they could conceal their treachery. Where they could not control the press, or keep men from voicing contrary opinions, they used whatever harsher means were available to silence their opponents.

    We Jews shall drive the Christians into war by exploiting their national vanity and stupidity. They will then massacre each other, thus giving room for our own people. Rabbi Reichorn

    The aim of ALL Secret Societies is and will always be the struggle against the Church and the Christian religion. Le Couteulx de Canteleu, 1863

    • Madam, I believe if Christ-insanity hadn’t been “reformed” in the 16th century it would have soon imploded as a result of all its inherent contradictions, corruption and hypocrisy. If that were the case we would have been free of that Semitic mind-control cult for almost 500 years by now. Who knows what kind of marvelous intellectual, cultural and scientific achievements would have been gained thereby?

  9. I am not religious, so I never understood how people could go to war and kill each other over some stupid
    religious disagreement. If those in authority ordered me to follow the teachings of Luther, I would say, “okay”. If they said I had to accept the doctrine of Calvinism, I would say, “sure, no problem”.

    Anything to get them off my back.

  10. @Hunter

    I remember getting a comment censored by you recently…..I guess I should have posted it in this thread like everyone else?

  11. Good article, but you didn’t mention what caused the Reformation: the development of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. The Reformation simply would not have been possible without the printing press.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Gutenberg

    “… the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin’s status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.”

    The Internet is phase two of the Gutenberg press. We are seeing a repeat, only it’s on steroids. Let me paraphrase Wikipedia of 2118:

    – the arrival of the Internet introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, and threatened the power of political and Jewish authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the Jewish elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging nationalist groups. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of nationalism….

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