Here’s an interesting excerpt from Ibram X. Kendi’s Stamped From The Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America:
“Days before the November 1860 election, 30,000 Democrats processed through New York City carrying torches, placards and banners that blared: “No Negro Equality” and “Free Love, Free Niggers and Free Women.”
Anyway, this reminded me of Charlottesville except on a far grander scale. These torchlight parades were going on in America long before in Nazi Germany or Eastern Europe.
Note: This was a few years before the 1863 New York City Draft Riots.