Caribbean Project: Jews, Slavery, and the Dutch Caribbean

African slaves in Dutch Curaçao toil for their Jewish masters
Curaçao

For much of the summer, I have focused intensively on the British West Indies and the French West Indies because of their strong organic ties to the culture of the Lower South.

We have seen how the type of race-based plantation slave society that emerged in South Carolina and Louisiana was pioneered in the British and French Caribbean and was brought there by settlers from the islands.

The Dutch Caribbean also played a crucial role in this story – it was Sephardic Jews operating through the Dutch West India Company that brought race-based plantation slavery from Brazil to Barbados in the 1640s which became the model for the spread of slavery throughout the whole Caribbean and the American South.

From the 1620s to the 1650s, Spanish hegemony in the Caribbean was on the wane as a consequence of the Thirty Years’ War in Europe and Spain began to lose its grip over much of the region and the entirety of the eastern Caribbean to Britain, France, and the Netherlands.

– England took St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627), Nevis (1628), Providence (1630), Antigua (1632), Montserrat (1632), and Jamaica (1655).

– France claimed Saint-Christophe (1625), Saint-Domingue (1641), Guadeloupe (1635) and Martinique (1635).

– The Dutch claimed St. Martin (1631), Curaçao (1634), St. Eustatius (1635), Saba (1640), and Aruba and Bonaire (1634).

The Dutch islands of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, and Saba are part of the Leeward Islands in the northern Lesser Antilles. Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire are small islands off the coast of Venezuela to the west of Trinidad and Tobago.

In 1630, the Dutch seized Pernambuco and Recife in northeastern Brazil where they heavily invested in the sugar plantations that would become the nucleus of the New World agro-industrial plantation complex. From 1630 to 1654, Dutch Brazil was known as New Holland.

It is important to keep this in perspective: American slavery was a sideshow in the larger story of slavery in the Americas, about 600,000 slaves were brought to British North America, 5% of the 12 million that were brought to the New World.

In contrast, 3 million African slaves were brought to Brazil to work on sugar plantations, 35% of the 12 million that were brought to the New World. Another 17% percent were brought to Spanish America by the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French under the asiento system.

As previously noted, Jews were heavily involved in the slave trade in the Dutch and Portuguese colonies, and their trading outposts on these islands served as major hubs for supplying Spanish America and the British and French Caribbean with slaves.

The island of Curaçao directly off the Spanish Main played a key role in Jewish involvement in the slave trade:

“Though small in size, Curaçao’s Jewish community has a significant impact on history, as per their heavy involvement in the slave trade. Curaçao is home to the oldest active Jewish congregation in the Americas, dating to 1651. The Curaçao synagogue is the oldest synagogue of the Americas in continuous use, since its completion in 1732 on the site of a previous synagogue.”

According to The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples, Sephardic Jews outnumbered the Dutch in Curaçao and Suriname:

“In the seventeenth century, Curaçao emerged as an economic powerhouse based on legal and illegal commerce, not least the slave trade to Spanish America … Another social factor in the Dutch colonies that was largely absent from the French Caribbean was the presence of mainly Sephardic Jews in Curaçao and Suriname, where they actually outnumbered the Dutch.”

The Jew also brought race-based plantation slavery to the French Caribbean, not just to Barbados and the British Caribbean:

“Robert Louis Stein argues that the introduction of commercial sugarcane planting to the French West Indies was “the most significant single event” to occur during the 17th century. It was linked, he says, to the arrival of Dutch and Jewish settlers from Brazil, who were the driving force behind “sugar and slavery” there, as well as tobthe development of the regional market in enslaved Africans. (Stein 1979, 9-11).”

So, the Jew was the driving force behind the emergence of the nucleus of race-based, modern, agro-industrial plantation slavery in Brazil, and was the dominant force in Curaçao and Suriname, as well as spreading this model to the nearby British and French West Indies from where it was launched to North America.

“In Curaçao, a group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews with the necessary linguistic skills and good connections in the Atlantic became decisive actors. This model procured for Amsterdam an enormous quantity of precious metals during the middle decades of the 17th century, although in the long term it proved too fragile to resist competition from foreign countries.”

What do you suppose the Jews in Curaçao were trading for Spanish gold and silver? African slaves would be my guess. I’m feeling like I am getting a bite here. I can feel something big pulling on the end of the line.

Update: More on Curaçao as a center of the slave trade:

Although these laws dislodged the Dutch from the official carrying trade with these islands, illegal trade continued to flourish. More important, in 1662 the Dutch secured a new asiento to trade slaves in Spanish America – a trade made easier for them by the growing number of trading posts in Africa and an enterprise that signaled the tightening of connections between the Caribbean, Afeica, and the American mainland. The Spanish colonies of Santo Domingo and Puerto Rico were increasingly important in this trade, and Curaçao (and later St. Eustatius) emerged as its lucrative center. Despite formal trade prohibitions, the Dutch also supplied the French colonies of Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Saint-Domingue. Thus the Dutch continued to generate great wealth through legal and extralegal commerce and especially the slave trade.”

Note: How much truth is there in this video? We’re going to find out eventually.

50 Comments

  1. Try to publish a book quickly. There is a tendency to think that a book has to be great somehow. Try to avoid such thoughts. Write it like your blog is fine.

    Write a book in html directly and e-publish it in Nook and Kindle. You can put in internal and external html links and those will work in the final version. A few are enough.

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    A book will create a lot of search engine hits of an echo sort, but these are still useful.

  2. I have a Nook and would buy an e-pub formatted version. Kindle and Nook do not share compatible file formats. Other than content, a well itemized index is very important for these sorts of books.

  3. Nook and Kindle will both take an html source file and convert it directly from that. Their processed formats are different from each other it is true, but the author can still write a single html source file.

    Any html source file that validates can be converted.

    http://validator.w3.org/

    Check validation as you go along, don’t wait until the end.

    You can also release the book as a serial of 50 pages or shorter in length at a low price for each volume.

  4. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oroonoko#section_2

    this is a novel/play by Aphra Behn about slavery in Suriname. She claims to have lived there. The characters are all real except for Oroonoko (a Django unchained type) it’s worth a look and gives a flavour of the times.

    Behn? Yeah I know, sounds temptingly Jewish, Hmmmm. Never thought about that before. I first read this as an undergrad at UCLA the mention of Jewish militias putting down revolts simply clicked.

  5. One more reason for small books. If you have 25 to 50 page books you can price them at .99 to 2.99. You only get 35 percent currently below 2.99, and 70 percent from 2.99 to 9.99. (Talk about oligopoly)

    If you have a .99 price book, you can give 25 copies to people who review books for just a cost of .65 * 25 dollars.

    Even a 2.99 book, it is only 30 percent you pay, it is under 1 dollar for each review copy you e-gift. So you can give out 25 to reviewers for only 25 dollars.

  6. Wallace,

    take a look at Johan Behn. He operated out of Hamburg and London. He owned “The King David” a slaving ship. Aphra Behn is supposed to be his widow. Oroonoko combines ship owner, lady historical novelist, King Charles II and real Dutch n English personas in Suriname.

    It must be one of the very first Books to deal with Caribbean slaving.

  7. Re: Argentina’s inept brown female dear leader losing popularity: She could up her poll numbers by invading the Falklands.

  8. Hunter, you are on to something huge here. I think you are beginning to uncover an older paradigm for Jewish survival than the present Enlightenment based “liberal” paradigm.

    The establishment of slave societies in the New World was the product of exiled Sephardic Jews from Portuguese Brazil and the Netherlands colonies, many of which were originally Portuguese. Their apparent aim was the creation of Jewish run trade empires centered on exploiting human vice, (rum, tobacco, slaves).

    Additionally, this may explain the quasi-nation status accorded to the big trading companies of the time, such as the British East India Company and its western and Dutch counterparts. The Age of Mercantilism can be better understood as a competition between these (Jewish dominated?) proto-internationalist-globalist entities rather than an economic contest between emerging nation-states.

    The Jewish inspired “Enlightenment” changed this strategic paradigm, or rather forced its abandonment. A better paradigm for the exploitation of the nations could be found in “liberté, égalité, fraternité.” By the time of Haiti, the older paradigm had been forsaken.

    I guess I can see more clearly now than ever why the Yankee empire had to fight a war with newly arrived immigrants from the radical parts of Europe in order to “liberate” the negroes. It was the necessary denouement to the paradigm shift.

    Deo Vindice

  9. In the Northeastern states in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century period, “They” imported wage slaves from Italy to “create wealth” in their mills and factories.

  10. It all depends on how wealth is defined, and whether it is to be considered that the “immense wealth created” for some in the short term (They say: “But we all live and die in the short term”) is more than over-balanced by the long-term impoverishment and destruction of the nation as a whole.

  11. Basically a WN up in Harold’s kingdom can come to the conclusion that blacks in his midst are all the fault of those “Dutch.”

    Blacks are tamed by the jews though, all that talk about reparations yet they never finger the descendants of those great slave trading fortunes, hmmmm?

  12. Al Sharpton never mentions those descendants of those great fortunes, shall we say he is one tamed nigger?

  13. It might not be so much a paradigm shift among Jews so much as a comparatively rare case of competing Jewish ingroups: German Ashkennazim espousing Enlightenment principles against the outmoded “Mercantilist” ways of Spanish Sephardim.

    This was followed, of course, by a subsequent wave of East European Marxist Ashkenazim who established the current anti-white hegemony throughout white lands worldwide. Sephardic Jews were not anti-white due to direct contact with negroes as one of the commodities of their business.

    They had profited from the Moorish occupation of Spain earlier, which is why the New World was seen as a “refuge” from Europe, another interesting paradigm itself.

    Deo Vindice

  14. In the long run we are all dead.

    Hunter presents himself with a dilemma. If the slave system was an underhanded Hebe enterprise, then, does a proud southerner throw in his lot with them?

  15. Al Sharpton never mentions those descendants of those great fortunes, shall we say he is one tamed nigger?

    And he’s pro-Latino invasion, too. Him and Jesse Jackson. And this is at the expense of their own people in terms of: employment competition with Latinos; Latino-on-black gang violence that the Latinos are winning; and street drugs via Mexico that are destroying black inner cities.

    He’s on board with the NWO order.

  16. The Jewish involvement in the slave trade also had a hand in developing the Yankee ideology, which is essentially an amalgamation of the “free trader” Mercantilist paradigm from Old New Amsterdam with the “refuge” from Europe in the New World, “shining city on a hill,” “light unto the nations,” Judaized Protestant Dissenter New England paradigm.

    The eighteenth century Enlightenment would completely transfigure this amalgamation but would not alter its essential nature.

    “Free trade,” American exceptionalism, immigrant “refugees,” and “liberté, égalité, fraternité” (aka freedom and equality). What a toxic combination, certain to please any Yankee neoconservative or his duped Southern janissary. The Jewish roots of Yankee ideas are interesting to observe. Team USA is a windup toy for some it would seem.

    Deo Vindice

  17. John, you are ignoring the obvious implications of what Hunter is presenting here.
    The white man has been in the pocket of the Jew for a very long time. Since the end of Christendom, really.

    Hunter is presenting a different context for events that is useful in examining some cherished assumptions. Understanding the Carribean slave societies is essential to understanding the South.

    Examining the origins and ultimate destinies of these slave societies would also suggest some interesting questions regarding the limitations of Jewish influence and perhaps even some vulnerabilities.

    What is the antidote to a hegemonic “free trade” empire run by an alien elite that relies upon division within the population to maintain power?

    Peaceful partition of said empire, if it can be accomplished, I would say. That would require loss of legitimacy among the population (less important these dumbed down days), along with loss of dependency upon said empire (sadly more important and more the case).

    In short, it ain’t gonna happen any time soon.
    In order to be free, a people must first be capable of being free.
    In BRA, we’re headed the other direction.
    What do you think?

    Deo Vindice

  18. John, who cares? And why should we worry about it? Slavery was legal, widely practiced and economically viable at the time. No need to go on and worry about it, how it sounds, or looks or plays out. Recognize it occurred, that it was legal all over the world, (including yankee land) used all over the world ( including yankee land) and because of the commodity crops, slavery worked paralytically well in the South and Caribbean. Well enough to be the economic engine of 3 empires and the new republic.

    anything more is just playing the liberal bullshit games

  19. Jewish leaders demand Farrakhan denounce “Secret Relationship Between Blacks and jews” book

  20. I think talking about Jewish slaveowners is more profitable than “Black Confederates.” Perhaps we ought to explore the Jewish role in slavery in light of how often Jewish historians like Kevin Levin demonize the Confederacy?

  21. If you go down that road, and liken Jewish involvement in slavery to traditional Jewish roles in cultural, moral and financial sabotage, you may be forced to admit that slavery was, in fact, not good for white people.

  22. I mean if it starts looking like pornography, where Jews are vastly overrepresented, some moral conclusions will be inevitable. Simply because where there is moral weakness to be exploited, there will be Jews. We know what the weakness is, but can it be exploited by Jews without cultural corruption on other levels? You say yes. But are you biased? Did this base level of moral corruption blind the South in other ways?

    We recognize the South was correct in its LEGAL reading of the right of secession. But were they blinded by some other secondary level of corruption that cried to Heaven to be avenged?

  23. Another thing. I know from my Congo research that Jews were active in Sao Tome, an island off the coast of Central Africa, which was a major center of the Portuguese slave trade and a key site where the prototype of New World slavery was pioneered.

  24. Shoot, where there are Jews, there is always profit. And good times. With profoundly monstrous hangovers.

    But how (objectively) “good” can something be if Jews are literally up to their necks in it?

    Was losing the War the South’s hangover for partying with the Jews a bit too long?

    Not that the North wasn’t up to their necks with Jews and Jewish-acting “Christians” also. But I don’t think that at base in the North there was a general acceptance on a personal and cultural level of a practice the Jews were clearly exploiting.

  25. This raises a few of the issues Joe was CTing about. Lynda too.

    Much of it is open knowledge, contested and part of the official history already. Disturbing info if you see people as innocent before proven guilty, but otherwise alluded to by many historians in measured statements.

  26. It is probably significant too that slavery had been abolished in Northern Europe, but existed around the fringes of the Mediterranean in places like southern Spain and Sicily that had been conquered by Muslims.

    There were a lot of Jews in Iberia, especially in southern Iberia, before the Inquisition started pushing them out. The only places in Europe where there were sugar plantations before the ones that were created in the eastern Atlantic islands was southern Spain, Italy, Cyprus, and Crete.

    So, who spread slavery to Madeira and the Canary Islands, and to Sao Tome and the fringe islands off the coast of West and Central Africa?

    How did Brazil emerge as the nucleus of plantation slavery from 1570 to 1650? How involved were Jews in places like the Netherlands in financing this and coordinating it?

    What is the substance to this subject beyond paranoid conspiracy theorists posting dubious claims on the internet?

  27. Your position is that black slavery is good for whites because it gives whites a sense of racial identity. But if your racial identity comes from a perception of difference from something so profoundly inferior, that can’t be good. But you can see how that could be good for Jews.

  28. Simple there were big profits. A certain amount of commercial expertise. No sabotage apart from paying blacks to raid each other.

  29. This time I’m renting a jeep and driving from Santo Domingo to Samana. Armed only with a King James bible, cigars, an iPhone 4s, and my Yankee-racism/golden circle sympathies.

  30. It’s a complex subject. I’m pretty sure that Europeans knew who they were, that they were different. But they wouldn’t have hated blacks before Atlantic slavery. Or vice versa. Blackness probably wasn’t a conscious Identity before the slaving. I’d guess that the rare occurrence if a darkie in dark ages England would have been the occasional mercenary or sailor. Almost a mythical creature.

    But whites were probably much more prevalent. Viking ships, Roman, Greek would have traded all up the Ghanaian coast. Probably quite welcome visitors bringing metalworks in exchance for Ivory, gems and lumbers. I find it hard to beleive the blacks were competent sailors.

  31. Slavery fosters racial identity.

    It created an elite that values racial identity because it is practical and useful in a slave society. The free labor system has no use for racial identity and the result is a low level of racial consciousness.

    Europeans didn’t think of themselves as “Whites” nor did they value their whiteness until they started to live in New World slave societies or in extreme frontier conditions where European settlement was precarious and racial defections were a mortal threat to colonialism.

  32. “Economic dynamo creating immense W E A L T H ! ” ?

    It all depends on how wealth is defined, and whether it is to be considered that the “IMMENSE WEALTH created” FOR SOME in the short term (as They say: “We all live and die in the short term”) is more than over-balanced by the immense weight of the impoverishment and destruction of a nation in the long term.

  33. Enslavement of other races fosters many other things besides racial consciousness and ongoing interracial conflict.

  34. Purchasing and using other races in place of farm machinery and other tools to create wealth is absolutely antithetical to Christianity. It is claimed to the contrary that efficient use of such human tools to produce goods and services in a competitive marketplace can be combined with Christian benevolence, or that it IS benevolent compared with their otherwise free, feral, probably shorter-lived existence in the jungles. The same can be said of the regime of so-called free labor or wage slavery: the love of money is the root of it all, and selfishness, greed and envy, un-love of one’s neighbour, all contrary to the spirit of Christ.

  35. Non-wage slavery of some sort existed historically in many places, but the active importation of thousands or millions of people from another continent (African slavery) to become slaves of a different race had few precedents.

    Slaves from all parts of the empire (including Africa) were brought to ancient Rome, and modern Italians are among the darkest of Mediterraneans, almost non-European, because of that inescapable inheritance. “Thou shalt not sow thy field with mixed seed” regardless of the short-term profit-making potential.

  36. @ Hunter Why not go into the fact that today you have East Indian former (?) Hindoos running South Carolina and Lousiana?

  37. The WN ideal is a racially homogeneous “White Republic” but anyone who digs into this issue for any considerable length of time will eventually conclude that the concept is fundamentally flawed.

    In a racially homogeneous society, White racial consciousness would fade. The elite would have no practical economic reason to value whiteness or racial solidarity. White racial consciousness would dissolve and Whites would become polarized again along ethnic, religious, ideological, and class lines.

    That would lay the foundation for the self destruction of the White Republic.

  38. Mosin,

    Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, Britain, and Denmark were all Christian societies that practiced slavery and engaged in the slave trade. The Vatican sanctioned the Spanish and Portuguese conquest of the New World.

  39. This whole “slavery is the impoverishment and destruction of a nation” argument flies in the face of history. Slave societies have existed since the earliest beginnings of civilization. Slavery is the natural result of an encounter between different groups, especially when one of the groups is markedly superior to the other.

    I realize that it flies in the face of the righteous justification necessary to abolitionists and their apologists such as Mosin, but advanced civilizations have more often than not depended on the institution of slavery as a means of organizing labor to create wealth.

    The encounter with African savages by Arabs, Jews, whites, or any other race for that matter would have produced slavery almost automatically due to the marked inferiority of the negro. The domestic animal/livestock paradigm is a far more useful outlook to assess the benefits and detriments of negro slavery.

    The arbitrary and all too easy assignment of white qualities to negroes interferes with a proper analysis. This insane anthropomorphizing of negroes is the original impulse behind the wholly unnatural and truly disastrous abolitionist and “civil rights” movements. How many more white people do you want to kill to demonstrate negro equality? We can already see that it doesn’t work.

    Slavery enabled Africans to make a limited contribution to civilization where previously they were unable to make any such contribution due to their lack of capacity for civilization. Slavery has been the only institution that has been able to demonstrate any control on the destructive capabilities of the negro.

    The only thing you really see wrong with slavery is that it doesn’t fit the narrative you have accepted as an article of faith. Sorry, negroes lack a capacity for civilization unless they are kept in a state of servitude. Dry your tears, now. Abe would want it that way.

    Deo Vindice

  40. Until recently, the American North was racially homogeneous. It was also during that relatively homogeneous period that the seeds for the racial destruction of the entire country were sown.

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