British West Indies
Palmetto Patriot has an excellent article on this at SNN: it was pioneered by Dutch and Portuguese Jews in Brazil, who played a decisive role in bringing it to the British and French West Indies in the 1640s and 1650s.
Note: In Caribbean Project: “Beyond The Line,” I briefly discussed James Drax, the first sugar baron in Barbados, who visited Brazil in 1640 and whose successful experiment in sugarcane was the decisive moment in the creation of the first “slave society” in the English West Indies.*
Oddly enough, Drax had a Puritan background. He sided with Cromwell, Parliament, and the Roundheads in the English Civil War. The Cavaliers who later settled in Barbados snapped up lucrative plantations created by the original settlers and expelled Drax from Barbados, but were themselves defeated when a naval blockade strangled the island into submission.
* “Great Britain” did not yet exist at the time.