Caribbean Project: Exploring The Dutch Caribbean

In St. Eustatius, a view of the Slaves' Road from the harbor to the village up above the harbor and bay
St. Eustatius

I’ve continued researching the Dutch Caribbean and have learned a few more interesting things:

(1) It was the Dutch who brought the first black slaves to Jamestown in 1619. I already knew this, but it makes me wonder just who these “Dutch” slavetraders were who introduced slavery to Virginia.

(2) In 1667, the Dutch ceded New Amsterdam (now known as New York) to the British in the Treaty of Breda in order to keep Suriname in northern South America.

I didn’t know this, but it makes sense in light of how the Caribbean colonies, not the North American colonies, used to be the epicenter of European colonialism in the New World.

At the end of the Seven Years’ War, the French ceded Canada to the British in order to retain Guadeloupe and Martinique. During the American Revolution, the British abandoned Philadelphia to the Patriots in order to invade French-held St. Lucia.

(3) Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire – the three Dutch islands in the South Caribbean off the coast of Venezuela – have an arid climate and were never race-based plantation societies in the mold of Barbados or Saint-Domingue.

Of these, Jewish-dominated Curaçao was the biggest slave trading entrepôt of the 17th century in the Caribbean, and the slaves who worked on the island mostly grew food for the stream of African slaves pouring through Curaçao on their way to foreign markets in Spanish America and the French and British West Indies.

Aruba and Bonaire were dependencies of Curaçao – in the former, a few slaves harvested dyewood and worked on a failed maize plantation, and in the latter slaves mined salt for export to other Caribbean islands, but these were both marginal islands in the wider Caribbean plantation world.

(4) Jewish-dominated Suriname in northern South America was a full fledged race-based plantation society in the mold of Saint-Domingue. It also had a reputation for being one of the most brutal slave societies in the New World.

(5) In the northern Leeward Islands, the Dutch jointly occupied St. Martin with the French, and they also controlled St. Eustatius and the small island of Saba.

There seem to have been a few sugar plantations on Saba that used slaves. St. Martin also had sugar plantations. Neither of these islands were big enough though to play a major role in the regional sugar industry.

(6) St. Eustatius was the Curaçao of the Leeward Islands: a major regional slave trading entrepôt that illegally catered to the needs of sugar plantations in the British and French West Indies.

According to Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy’s An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean, there also seem to have been a lot of Sephardic Jews active here working as merchants and using St. Eustatius as a base for participating in the slave trade.

During the American Revolution, the Jews on St. Eustatius sold a lot of weapons to the Yankees, and the island was occupied in 1781 by the British under Admiral Sir George Brydges Rodney who became a hero after defeating the French fleet in 1782 at the Battle of the Saintes which saved Jamaica.

Rodney has been accused of “anti-Semitism” for his actions on St. Eustatius and was harassed by Jewish lawsuits to the end of his life:

“The British government was incensed at this “nest of Spys and Rogues who carry’ed on trade, with the French and Americans – “not properly a colony [but a] … nest of outlaws, or st best Adventurers from every State [selling] … provisions, clothing, and all naval and warlike stores … to the Rebels, and enemies of Great Britain.” The British believed that the French and Americans were only able to sustain “the War in that Quarter of the World” because of “the Supplies they had received from St. Eustatius.”…

The conquest of St. Eustatius was “a day of desolation to the community at large & Jews in particular.” The Jews shared in common “Loss of their Merchandise, their Bills, their Houses, Clothes, [and] Provisions” but they alone suffered the separation of families and the banishment of their men who were not even told the destination of their exile. They “petitioned, intreated, implored, [and] remonstrated against so hard a sentence, but in vain.” They were not allowed to keep their personal possessions, in contrast to the Americans, Dutch, and French. Those found withholding petty cash were set apart for punishment. The 101 adult male Jews were assembled under guard and had the linings of their pockets ripped open and their “clothes torn in pieces in search for concealed money” before thirty of them were “hurried off the island, destitute of everything, to solicit the cold charity of Antigua, and St. Kitts.” The rest were locked in a weighing house for three days; they were released just in time to witness the auction of their holdings.”

The Jews on St. Eustatius were decimated by Admiral Rodney in 1781 just as the slave trade in the British and French West Indies was about to reach its historic peak.

(7) In 1863, the Dutch finally abolished slavery in their Caribbean and South American colonies.

50 Comments

  1. When you start to See the Jew – you start to see the real history of the world.

    FYI – they are upping the ante. You’ve heard that canard chant:

    “Those who bless Israel blah blah blah…..”

    It’s been changed to “Those who bless Jews etc”.

  2. Stuyvesant sent a peculiar letter to his bosses in Amsterdam moaning about 23 Jewish families who washed up in NYC (New Amsterdam) in 1654. They came from Recife. He wanted to eject them. His bosses under considerable pressure from Jewish shareholders insisted they stay and be granted rights.

    It’s a very telling exchange.

  3. Here’s an excerpt:

    “…A year later, Stuyvesant sent the following wry report to the company on his compliance with the company’s policies.

    June 10, 1656

    . . . Considering the Jewish nation with regard to trade, they are not hindered, but trade with the same privilege and freedom as other inhabitants. Also, they have many times requested of us the free and public exercise of their abominable religion, but this cannot yet be accorded to them. What they may be able to obtain from your Honours time will tell.”

    There’s something refreshing about reading the ancients. Their wisdom, erudition, economy and candor can’t be matched by our crop of gelded eunuchs. At least the power struggle is open instead of occluded. What I like about the witty Stuyvesant is that he could foresee how infested the place would become. “What they may be able to obtain from your Honours time will tell!” Comedy fckn gold, what insubordination.

  4. “There’s something refreshing about reading the ancients. Their wisdom, erudition, economy and candor can’t be matched by our crop of gelded eunuchs”

    As to their “economy and candor” I suspect, as I reckon you do as well, that a good deal of it was down to their literacy in Latin, which as I’m sure you know is a far more succinct and economical language than its offspring-languages. It’s possible to say things in a blunt and yet lucid way in Latin that is harder in the Germanic languages; but if one is accustomed (as an educated man back then would have been) to sort of thinking in Latin a lot of the time, a good deal of that terseness and knack for aphorism would carry over into the vernacular. Witness the hilarious Gibbon for instance. It’s probably also where Nietzsche got his talent for aphorism.

    For a while, back when I was a high-school kid immersed in this sort of stuff, I occasionally found myself dreaming in Latin. Ah, those were the days.

  5. Is The Admirable Rodney the only man to have “pogrommed” a territory in the western hemisphere? This is indeed a rare find. The docket of lawsuits against him will have been converted to digital if they survived at the Old Bailey. Precisely who was bringing on the lawsuits?

  6. It should be noted here that the Dutch West India Company shipped about 500,000 slaves to the New World – that’s a fraction of the total estimate of 12 million, a little under the number that was brought to the United States.

    So while this is interesting and establishes a Jewish role it doesn’t prove that Jews were behind the slave trade. We’re going to have to take a closer look at British, French, and Portuguese involvement in the slave trade.

  7. The Dutch trade companies went tits up and were badly administered or, most obviously the ‘asiento’ contracts simply moved to London after the Anglo-Dutch wars were resolved in the Atlantic Archipelago’s favor and the Williamites took over. Charles II and James II RAC was the main slave trade company and William seized that from his uncle.

  8. Rodney didn’t conduct the first Western Hemispheric pogrom either:

    Here’s the story of Jewish run Recife according to the Rabbis:

    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12617-recife-pernambuco

    This is quite a good read. There was a titanic battle in Recife between the Portuguese settlers/farmers and the Sephardis who controlled Recife (as much as 2/3 of the urban population according to this article). It reads like something out of the Iliad if credible. The Dutch look like bit players or puppets, I’m gobsmacked by this story. I realize I know nothing of Brazilian history and that they kicked out about 5,000 of them. No wonder so many Nazis ran off to live there.

  9. John,

    Good find. My research points to Recife and northeastern Brazil as the origin of the race-based plantation slavery that swept over the Caribbean. Brazil is such an interesting case that it warrants being dealt with separately after I wrap up my Caribbean book.

  10. John – I don’t call Hebes the Spawn of Satan for NO reason. There is something congenitally WTRONG with them. They crew up EVERYTHING, if allowed to do so.

    I read somewhere – most likely somewhere here – that the Babylonian Empire allowed Jews in – but they were not allowed to engage in finance, law, or government. (They didn’t have mass media, then). The Babylonian Empire lasted a loooooooong time. I beleive it’s the longest successful government/culture, etc. on record.

    Hmmmmmmm…….

    Things Fall Apart, with time – but Jews act as a social acid, on thier Hosts. They’re in China now, busily breeding Chinese Hebes. The Chinese are already hip to the score. They kicked the Hebes out once, already ,about a thousand years ago…

    I hope I live long enough to see What Happens Next. I thin kthe Chinese will expel them post-haste, for al the Jewsual Reasons.

    It’s THEM. They are the problem. Humans in general are far from perfect – but I think Humanity, in general, would be al ot better off, overall, without the plague of Satan’s Imps.

  11. You have Jewish traders like David Senior Coronel –Richest man in Recife. Almost certainly the richest man in the Americas in his prime. He controlled the sugar trade in Brazil which was the lions share of the sugar trade itself. He was in Recife 1636-1650 dying before the Portuguese ejected the Jewish population. Family spent the rest of the century suing (same-old-same-old) Portugal to get his mills and refineries back. link:

    http://www.jackwhite.net/iberia/coronel.html

    I think it is perfectly fair to point out that the jewish population very quickly latched onto the sugar trade and therefore were enmeshed in the slave trade. His Grandparents were courtiers in Spain and Andalusia. So these cats are long term features in Spanish and Portugee policy.

  12. A geneology of the David-Senior-Coronel AKA Duarte-Saraiva-Coronel’s family might provide your answer to precisely how Jews were involved in slaving and planation life. They dominated Surinam as a clan too.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Senor

    The name shows up even today at the White House. Ferdinand and Isabella’s Court to the WH. lol.

  13. Ah!

    The Jews were expelled from Brazil. That explains their diffusion through the Dutch, British, and French colonies and the transmission of race-based plantation slavery there.

  14. Mordechai Arbell

    The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean: The Spanish Portuguese Jewish Settlements

    In it he seems to claim credit for his race in kick starting Sugar cultivation in the Carribean. Before this the French settlers were more like farmers.

    http://books.google.com/books?id=T3t__sdb_SkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

    You can read much of it on google book. It’s astonishing that Jewish scholar would actually lay it all out as openly as this account.

  15. Compare “They ‘petitioned, intreated, implored, [and] remonstrated against so hard a sentence, but in vain.'” with:
    http://www.adl.org/PresRele/CvlRt_32/6373_32.htm

    They never stop “petitioning, intreating, imploring, and remonstrating” against “some perceived injustice” do they? But exactly who are they “petitioning, intreating, imploring and remonstrating” against in the instance of the republican and democratic party platforms” pray tell?

  16. I’m beginning to admire their industrious tenacity. It’s good yo read about this history in the context of a sober Jewish historian rather than a frothing at the mouth NOI propagandist or a deranged CT person like Joe.

    tobacco and indigo never provided these sorts of profits. Nor allow for the massive slave demand that occurred in 1700s. Sugar and those who knew how to cultivate and refine it lead to Haiti, starting in Recife’s mega refineries via Martinque and the Jewish settlers there. So Sugar cultivation is clearly a Jewish speciality in this period. The French and British in addition to the Dutch and Spanish were their understudies.

    It doesn’t explain Cotton slavery though.

  17. Hunter,

    This little known battle in the Portuguese Dutch War and the expulsion of the Jewish merchants, shippers, refiners, planters from Recife is obviously a pivotal moment in the spread of slavery in the western hemisphere. A nest of 5,000 specialized, highly skilled men from Recife turfed out overnight in 1954 fanned out in the Western hemisphere and planted sugar.

  18. @John

    It is obvious that one of your agendas on this blog is to inculcate an association between the slave trade in British Carib and the last Roman Catholic monarch of England James II (reigned 1685-88) and his predeccessor Charles Stuart II (1660-65).

    King William III somehow just ‘inherited’ this from the Stuart monarchs? The Bahamas was founded as a Crown Colony in 1718 – lots of slavery there. Jamaica was established as a plantation colony in 1655 during Cromwell’s protectorate. Long before James II. St Kitts was established just before the English Civil War 1630 and its slave economy got rolling as the Parliamentarians were building their New Model Army with Jew money to fight Charles I for the Supremacy.

    It is the Stuarts who inherited the plantation colonies, slavery and the slave trade in the Carib. It is the Crown under William III that expanded it in the Bahamas.

    Your agenda here is obvious.

  19. William seized it.

    William was related to the Stuarts too, you know.

    Anyway this is off topic. I’m locating the nexus of Jewish influence on the Sugar trade/sugar plantation. Go post this williamitevjacobite stuff elsewhere. someplace else.

  20. Read this Lynda. The “Dutch” arrived saying: “hey you Tobacco and Indigo farmers, grow Sugar!”

    The ratio of white to black suddenly shifted bacause Sugar harvesting and refining
    was much more punishing than tobacco cultivation.

    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar_plantations_in_the_Caribbean

    the wiki skips over exactly who the Dutch were (Jews from Recife) but other Jewish scholars prove that it was an exclusively Jewish skill. In fact most of the Tobacco planters were bought out and replaced. The Sugar kings were YKW.

    The amount of slavery before this period was proportionally smaller than the sugar demand for flesh. After sugar the white colonizers and their teams of white labourers and black slaves were swamped by a huge influx of slaves. The Caribbean would have been whiter without the Sugar industry. Ironic.

    however, this still doesn’t explain king cotton.

  21. Another point to consider, is that this may have been an attempt to get out from under Christian law that forbade jews to own property or serfs.

  22. Here’s the relivant paragraph:

    “In the mid 17th century sugar cane was brought into the British West Indies by the Dutch[1][2][3] from Brazil. [exactly when the Jews were expelled from Recife]Upon landing in Barbados and other islands, they quickly urged local farmers to change their main crops from cotton and tobacco to sugar cane. With depressed prices of cotton and tobacco due mainly to stiff competition from the North American colonies, the farmers switched, leading to a boom in the Caribbean economies. Sugar was quickly snapped up by the British who used the sugar for cakes, and sweetener in teas.”

    this transformed a largely white island into a sea of niggers. I would distinguish the Sugar system from the Tobacco slave system because of this. Tobacco never lead to this sort of disproportionate negrification. Sweet tooth! It’s antiwhite.

  23. “William was related to the Stuarts too, you know.”

    Only by marriage. Your Whiggish sentiments are totally transparent. I bet you even voted Conservative (The Tories/Libs are nothing but me-too New Labour nowadays) in the last election. It’s funny that you post here as England is in worse shape than we are.

    Did you approve the hunting ban, the evisceration of the House of Lords and the feminist repeal of traditional Royal primogeniture too? You are a degenerate and decadent disgrace in addition to being a Germanophobe. Go and bomb Dresden or something.

  24. “John says:
    August 29, 2012 at 8:13 pm
    I think it is perfectly fair to point out that the jewish population very quickly latched onto the sugar trade and therefore were enmeshed in the slave trade. His Grandparents were courtiers in Spain and Andalusia. So these cats are long term features in Spanish and Portugee policy.”

    As the Jew Deep Throat infamously said, “Follow the money”.

  25. “John says:
    August 29, 2012 at 11:07 pm
    Only by marriage!”

    Barely avoids snorting beverage on keyboard….must get dinner for hubster….later….

  26. This Recife place is basically the NYC of the 1620s-50s, the site of a seige comparable to anything in the bible or classical period and the origination point of an exodus the germ of Sugar trade.

    All hidden in plain site.

  27. “Only by marriage. Your Whiggish sentiments are totally transparent.”

    Oh dear dear Rudel, why would you post such an obvious error? Is it because your Jacobite sympathies are even more transparent than you imagine other’s Whig sympathies to be? 🙂

    Charles I was grandfather of William III. William III’s wife Mary was his first cousin and the Protestant daughter of James II. So James was William’s uncle by blood.
    I should also point out the good people of Virginia held a celebration when William went on the throne.

    Not only was his Roman Catholicism unpopular but he and Charles II constantly antagonized the House of Burgess by interfering with what they considered their ancestral rights by annulling legislation the assembly passed and even closing down the House of Burgess at times. So while Virginia under Berkeley supported Charles I his kids were not popular there.

    Also why would anyone want to link slavery to James II to tar Catholics? Were not the monarchs of Spain, Portugal, and France Catholic during their involvement in the slave trade? Wouldn’t that be more than enough?

  28. John – are you shimmering on over to the “Monomaniacal Blamer of Jews for Everything” corner, in Hunter’s Pub?

    Heil! Pull up a nice comfy chair. Have a schnapps. The matchbooks are always free, and plentiful here…

  29. “Is it because your Jacobite sympathies are even more transparent than you imagine other’s Whig sympathies to be?”

    When Charles, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales succeeds to the throne he needs to immediately dissolve Parliament, nullify by Royal Decree the Bill of Rights of 1689, the Act of Settlement of 1701, and certain elements of the Act of Union of 1800, disinter Cromwell’s head from Sussex College Cambridge (a notorious nest of traitors) and have it pulverized and scattered over the ocean to the four winds.

    He should then rule explicitly as legitimate heir to the throne of the House of Stuart (a claim more valid in his case than any other (as Charles himself has actually pointed out) even than that put forth in the name of Duke of Bavaria, although not by the Duke himself) thereby re-establishing the legal rule of law ordained by God over Great Britain and her possessions.

  30. I found some interesting info Hunter it turns out the “Dutch” ships that brought the Africans to Jamestown were actually English ships named the “White Lion” and the “Treasurer.” The ships were privateers that were operating under “Letters of Marque” one of which was Dutch the other issued by the Duke of Savoy.

    http://goo.gl/NI9wS

    This is very intriguing because it places a Puritan once again at key point in the history of English slavery. You see the Treasurer it seems was owned by the Earl of Warwick who was a Puritan. The deputy governor of Virginia Samuel Argall also seems to be involved with this as well possibly owning some interests in these ships.

    http://goo.gl/rxiEz

    Apparently these two ships captured the Portuguese ship Sao Joao Bautusta which was en route from Angola to Mexico with its cargo of Africans. The ships then took these Africans to Port Comfort, Virginia.

    Further info below on the whole affair.

    http://goo.gl/EgruH

    http://goo.gl/6PZZS

  31. Excellent work, Hunter. The financial network of tax shelters in the present day Carribean is a vestigial continuation of the earlier slavery based trade empire.

    From farming slaves on plantations to farming tax slaves in BRA. How’s that for progress?

    “Nice find Anglo-Protestant American”
    Second.

    Deo Vindice

  32. We’re getting to the tax shelters and the modern Caribbean. Right now I am researching how and when blacks got established on all these islands, the rise and fall of slavery in the Caribbean from 1640 to 1886, and all the social forces that brought about abolition.

    Ultimately, we are going to swing around to discussing over a dozen failed black experiments in freedom and equality – with Haiti as the centerpiece, and the lynchpin of the book – while addressing all the thorny questions like why is Haiti so much worse than Barbados.

    I want to write a book that sets Haiti in the wider regional culture of black failure and the disastrous implementation of liberal ideology from 1789 forward.

  33. Haiti appears to be that much worse than Barbados because sugar was so intesively harvested. The English islands and colonies still had indigo and tobacco at least vestiges of those products. The differences between sugar islands and tobacco seem to be profound. The former brutal and blacker the latter slightly more laid back and whiter.

  34. Jews in Spain and in the Med had enclaves in both Christian and Muslim cities and lands. They knew Arabic and went back and forth.

    When ships went down the African coast, they encountered Muslims already managing the slave trade in Africa? Some of whom spoke Arabic? So Jews would be a natural group to start up or carry on the slave trade.

    http://spice.stanford.edu/docs/the_spread_of_islam_in_west_africa_containment_mixing_and_reform_from_the_eighth_to_the_twentieth_century/

    The above article supports this view as Islam spread in West Africa starting from the 8th century and there was trade with North Africa from West Africa for centuries before the trans-Atlantic slave trade. One group mixed freely with Muslims and Christians in Spain, North Africa, and the Americas and had a bent for trade.

  35. “Also why would anyone want to link slavery to James II to tar Catholics? Were not the monarchs of Spain, Portugal, and France Catholic during their involvement in the slave trade? Wouldn’t that be more than enough?” – APA

    Isn’t the entire edifice of Europe, mired in the filioque, the primary issue? For, there would not BE a ‘Rome’ to battle against, there would not have BEEN a ‘Reformation’ had there not been a Filioque, to lead all of the West astray, starting with the primary fallacy derived from that Filioque- that one man could claim for himself Divine Oversight (Pope) and join with that claim for “Emperor status,” the idiotic belief that he therefore had (at the same time) ‘Universal Jurisdiction’ over the rest of the globe!?

    All of the ‘divine rights of kings,’ etc. that came up in Europe after that, hinged on the primary claim of ‘spiritual sovreignty’ by the erstwhile Bishop of Rome, starting in 1100A.D. Whalen’s book-
    ( http://books.google.com/books/about/Dominion_of_God.html?id=POw3H2C9Ak0C )

    chronicles this rise of an UTTERLY ‘OTHER’ philosophical trend (universal sovreignty/jurisdiction), within one generation of Humbert’s hubris in 1054 at Hagia Sophia. The entire edifice of Western ‘troubles’ arises when Rome departs from the Apostolic Faith, in the Eleventh Century.

  36. Hunter- And what I am hearing you folks say, is that it was the Puritan/Pilgrim Calvinists who realized that there is an ontological difference between the races?

    For, if Puritans and Jews were at the forefront of the slave trade, then that would mean- since they (Jews and Calvinists) both stress the ‘Electing’ nature of God upon Man-that is it YHWH God that chooses who is to be saved- whether of a race, or of a ‘hidden number of Elect’- that this view of the world, is a doctrine held via both the O.T., (Jews/Talmud) and the consistent application of Pauline/Augustinian thought in the N.T., (Augustine/Calvin) in that only Christendom (i.e., the Lands of Europe) is that ‘Ecumene’ that is translated in the KJV as ‘world’- which clearly challenges the fallacy of Rome’s (and the Protestant nations with her) ‘missiology’ – as the actions of the Hebes and Puritans conversely viewed (in the 16-1700’s) the ‘nations round about’ as only good for chattel slavery- and NOT as ‘potential sons of Adam’ for ‘conversion’?

    Which then means Rome’s dreams of worldwide conquest… (cough) I mean, ‘conversion’ …..and the similar fallacy of protestants ‘saving black babies’ is a false missiology? And is therefore ABSOLUTELY NULL AND UTTERLY VOID (to borrow a phrase)? And that the CI position actually holds far more merit, when compared to the current ‘troubles’ – incarnated (as they sadly are) in the first Nigger President, known as the “Obamanation”?

    Would you say that sums it up nicely? Inquiring minds want to know……

  37. Thanks Stonelifter.

    The alternative argument is that Europeans showed up in ships to African shores and somehow the local big man knew that meant they were there to buy blacks as slaves. Of course, why else would White men in ships come there? They negotiated it all with hand gestures. How many slaves, what price, which ones they take, etc.

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